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EFF "Privacy - Crypto - Key Escrow 1993-4 (US): Clipper/EES/Capstone/Tessera/Skipjack" Archive

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Files in this Archive

File on two good answers to frequently asked questions about the Clipper Chip, dated March 9, 1994.
John Perry Barlow's July 1992 article "Decrypting the Puzzle Palace," describing how the NSA seeks to dominate cyberspace. A wealth of early background material on FBI and NSA surveillance, political moves to oppose general public possession and use of strong encryption, and erection of export controls against encryption.
File on October 20, 1993 700 Club report on the Clipper Chip. Warns of the dangers of this chip, as well as espousing the importance of cryptographic freedoms. A good and simple (meaning non-technical) explanation of the Clipper Chip scheme, and not religious in tone.
File on Mobile Office Online's Open Press Conference of August 17, 1994 on electronic privacy. Guests included David Farber, board member of EFF. Issues discussed include privacy of e-mail and the Clipper Chip scheme. Farber emphasizes the negative aspects of the Clipper Chip and government intervention.
May 18, 1993 file on the Clipper Chip, with emphasis on more technical information.
File on the March 10, 1994 online debate between John Perry Barlow of EFF and Dr. Dorothy Denning, over the Clipper Chip issue. Barlow is co-founder of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, which promotes freedom in digital media. A recognized commentator on computer security, he is argues against the Clipper Chip Dr. Denning is the chairperson of the Computer Science Department at Georgetown University. A leading expert on cryptography and data security, she favors the adoption of the Clipper Chip. Presented by the Time Online Forum of America Online.
Statement against Clipper from former Canadian Defense Minister Perrin Beatty (from May 14, 1995, _Toronto_Sun_)
File on the May 3, 1994 testimony of Jerry J. Berman, the then Executive Director of EFF, before the Committee on Science, Space and Technology, Subcommittee on Science, Space and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives hearing on Communications and Computer Surveillance, Privacy and Security. Berman states EFF's position on the Clipper Chip / Digital Telephony issues -- that Administration policy developed in this area threatens individual privacy rights, will thwart the development of the information infrastructure, and does not even meet the stated needs of law enforcement and national security agencies. Berman calls for a fresh and comprehensive look at these issues.
File on article from Jim Bidzos of PKP/RSADSI, the makers of the RSA encryption products, opposing the Administration's Clipper chip scheme. First published in Computer Underground Digest 6.23. Seeks to strike a balance between the needs of the encryption industry, the public, and the government.
File on the June 15, 1994 floor statement of Congressman Jack Brooks, U.S. House of Representatives -- "Encryption Policy Endangers U.S. Competitiveness in Global Marketplace", which deals with the 'fanciful' notion of limiting the development, use and export of encryption when the technology is already available worldwide. Are we simply hurting US industry?
File on May 3, 1994 testimony by Dr. Clinton C. Brooks of the NSA\ before the House Science, Space and Technology Committee / Subcommittee on Technology, Environment, and Aviation. Discusses the NSA\'s views on encryption and its involvement with the Administration's key escrow encryption program, which he states encourages the use of the government designed encryption microcircuits, commonly referred to as CLIPPER chips. Brooks states that Clipper chips provide high quality privacy protection, but also enable law enforcement organizations, when lawfully authorized, to obtain the key that unlocks the encryption and thereby maintain the present ability to conduct electronic surveillance.
File on some questions and answers about the NSA\'s Capstone Chip, a hardware oriented, cryptographic device that implements the same cryptographic algorithm as the Clipper Chip.
"A Cautionary Note to Congress" on Clipper by ICS editor Steven Peterson, who emphasizes that 'there is no way any team of individuals can stay ahead of the collective abilities of an entire sub-culture bent on maintaining its right to privacy.'
File containing transcript of the "Who Holds the Keys?" session of the 1992 Computers, Privacy and Freedom Conference. The session was chaired by Dorothy Denning, and the panel included EFF co-founders John Gilmore and John Perry Barlow. The session dealt with cryptography and some of the implications of cryptography in terms of personal privacy, electronic communications, etc. Also discussed was the extent to which the government should have control over the technology.
File containing transcript of "Data Encryption: Who Holds the Keys" session of the Fourth Conference on Computers, Freedom and Privacy in March of 1994. Bob Smith, publisher of Privacy Journal, chaired the panel of George Davida, cryptography researcher at the University of Wisconsin, Stuart Baker, general counsel at NSA, and David Banisar of the Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility. Issues discussed include government infringement on privacy, the Clipper Chip, and other matters relating to cryptography.
Remarks by Bruce Sterling, science-fiction writer, at the Computers, Freedom and Privacy Conference IV, in Chicago, March 26, 1994. Sterling notes the general negative tone of conference, due to its heavy discussions on government infringement on privacy. Sterling also expresses his opinion that large government agencies, such as the NSA, are incapable of thorough surveillance of a large populace. clark_clipper.letter - Letter by Robert Clark of the University of Denver's Math/CS Department, to President Clinton denouncing the Clipper Chip scheme. Vehemently opposes the idea of government being capable of monitoring communication.
File which contains documents from the May 3, 1994 Clipper and Digital Telephony hearings of the US Senate and House of Representatives. Documents include the Hearing Charter, the witness list of the House hearing, a chart showing how key "escrow" works, and a chart showing how Clipper works. Hearing objectives include: review of the Clipper Chip and digital telephony legislation, assessment of alternatives to these initiatives, and evaluation of the adequacy of the Computer Security Act of 1987. Witnesses include Jerry Berman, former Executive Director of EFF.
May 4, 1994 EFF summary file of the Clipper Hearing by the Senate Subcommittee on Technology and the Law, and the House Subcommittee on Technology, Environment and Aviation hearing on Clipper and Digital Telephony proposals. Testimony was presented by EFF's Executive Director Jerry Berman and Board Member David Farber testified at the House hearing. Berman argues that Clipper would only solve the Administration's security needs only if criminals used it; Farber stresses the need to consider the issue more carefully and openly.
File containing a short (and potentially over-simplified) glossary of terms relevant to the Clipper debate.
File containing information about the Clipper Chip when the scheme was first announced back in April 1993; includes White House Press Release detailing the new encryption technique, AT&T release expressing their desire to incorporate the chip in their communications equipment, EFF's and CPSR's cautionary response to Clipper, and various newspaper articles on the introduction of the Clipper scheme.
File containing "Chipping Away at Privacy," an article written by Shari Steele and Daniel Weitzner (both with EFF) analyzing the Clipper Chip issue. The article raises the issues of the security of the key escrow system and the untested government encryption algorithm, as well as the the effect of the Clipper Chip scheme on the right to privacy and other constitutional rights.
File containg frequently asked questions (FAQ) about the Clipper Chip. The basics.
File containing a "What is the Clipper Chip?" FAQ. Some more basics, much like the clipper1.faq.
An audio file of US Vice President Gore discussion Clipper, and another sound file of former EFF Sr. Staff Counsel Daniel Weitzner commenting on the Gore statements. These are .au (u-law or mu-law) sound file, tar-archived, and gzip-compressed. You will need a version of tar (e.g. Tar4DOS, MacTar, etc.) for your platform to extract these files, as well as a soundfile player that will play .au files.
File containing information on how you can add your name to the petition opposing the Clipper proposal.
File containing article from July 20, 1994 issue of CyberWire Dispatch, written by Brock Meeks, announcing a weakening in the Administration's stance on the Clipper Chip.
File containing a technical analysis of the Clipper Chip, dated April 30, 1993).
News item which appeared in the March 1994 CPSR / Portland Newsletter entilted "Gilmore Files FOIA for Clipper Key Database", describing EFF board member John Gilmore's attempt at filing a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request with the Clipper key 'escrow agents' for the database of Clipper key components. Releasing the information would effectively give anyone the ability to decrypt Clipper-encrypted communications.
File containing letter from Lee Tien, John Gilmore's attorney, dated May 4, 1994, announcing the Justice Department's agreement to release some of the documents relating to the Clipper Chip and Digital Telephony issues.
File containing John Gilmore's account of the US Government's delay regarding the FOIA requests of the Clipper key database. Copies of the two appeal letters also included.
File containing article from WIRED 2.06 entitled 'Don't Worry Be Happy' by Stewart A. Baker, Chief Counsel for the NSA, on the positive points of the Clipper Chip. Baker underscores the dangers of unescrowed private encryption and the benefits of a key escrow encryption scheme, which would meet the needs of privacy and law enforcement.
File containing article from October 1993 issue of PC/Computing by Penn Jillette entitled "Subterranean Clipper Chip Blues," espousing (with a comic twist) the virtues of privacy.
File containing "Clipper Q and A" by W. Mark Lloyd, originally published in Computer Underground Digest 6.17. A good source for information on Clipper, Skipjack and the key escrow scheme.
File containing May 3, 1994 press release on statements made by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Deputy Director Raymond Kammer to the Senate Committee on the Judiciary and to the House Subcommittee on Technology, Environment and Aviation. Kammer stresses the voluntary nature of the telecommunications security initiative (Clipper Chip), and declares that it is not intended to be mandated in the future.
File containing National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) replies to some questions and concerns raised by Mr. Jim Bidzos of RSA Data Security, Inc. regarding the Clipper Chip scheme. Both sides address issues which include: the potential of the Clipper being legislated by Congress, the security risks involved in the encryption key escrow process, the threat of communications being compromised by the government, the effect of this issue on US competitiveness, and others.
File containing paper by Stephen T. Walker of Trusted Information Systems, Inc., entitled "The Clipper Initiative: All Americans Have a Right to Privacy! But Key Escrow Won't Help", dated August 31, 1993. Walker states that key escrow technology will not protect Americans from criminals, and goes on to suggest further dialogue between the public and private sector on the matter.
File containing article by Julian Dibbell entitled "Code Warriors: Battling for the Keys to Privacy in the Info Age", originally published in The Village Voice, August 3, 1993. Deals with government paranoia regarding secrecy.
"Law Enforcement and The Architecture of Cyberspace -- Should the Cops on the Beat Design the Electronic Street?", article by David Johnson. Excerpt: "The Administration has made its position clear: it will seek to encourage the use of the "Clipper Chip" and push for legislation that will require electronic communications systems to be designed to facilitate wiretapping and surveillance in real time...So we have a set of proposals that, in somewhat breath-taking fashion, claim for the cops not only the right to walk the beat but a privilege to say just how the street will be designed...But no such origin accounts for our best public spaces and I can tell you...that putting wiretapping at the top of the design priority list is a really dumb idea..."
File containing June 9, 1993 testimony of Marc Rotenberg, Director, CPSR Washington Office, before the the House Subcommittee on Telecommunications and Finance, chaired by Congressman Edward Markey. Markey's comments indicate that the Clipper proposal was not well-received by policymakers. Rotenberg raises questions about Clipper's security, the intent of the government in using a key escrow arrangement (Must they have the ability to intercept communications?) and supports further study into the Clipper proposal and the filed of cryptography.
File containing December 8, 1993 position by the Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR) opposing the Clipper Chip scheme, drafted by Marc Rotenberg, Director, David Sobel, Legal Counsel, and Dave Banisar, Policy Analyst. Letter sent to President Clinton.
File containing statement by the Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR) calling for a "complete overhaul in the federal government's information classification system, including the removal of cryptography from the categories of information automatically deemed to be secret."
File containing a long article by J. Orlin Grabbe, entitled "The End of Ordinary Money", copyrighted 1995. Deals with the issues of cryptography and electronic funds.
File containing December 8, 1993 announcement of EFF's official position on cryptography and privacy. EFF stated it's opposition to the original Clipper/Skipjack plan, as well as reiterating the need to lift restrictions on encryption.
File containing December 1, 1993 report (revised January 30, 1994) "Cryptography: Policy and Technology Trends", a report written under contract and supported in part by the US Department of Energy. The report discusses the fight between law enforcement / national security agencies, who would like to keep strict control of over civilian encryption, and industry / individuals / privacy rights advocates, who wish to expand their ability to distribute and use cryptographic products as they please. The report also analyzes the trends in encryption technology, markets, export controls, and legislation. Very good, unbiased approach to the issue.
Joe Abernathy's June 1992 article describing why law enforcement agencies fear the development of strong cryptographic programs.
File containing Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR) Cryptography Resolution, adopted on October 18, 1993. CPSR supports the right of all individuals to design, distribute, obtain and use encryption technology and opposes any government attempt to interfere with the exercise of that right.
File containing comments of the EFF regarding key escrow chip cryptographic technology and government policies and regulations before the Computer System Security and Privacy Advisory Board of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). EFF's statements deal with the possibility of encryption technologies being mandated, policy concerns about a government-run key escrow system, the constitutional implications of government controls on use of encryption, and the like.
File containing notice of the June 2-4 1993 meetings of the Computer System Security and Privacy Board of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to discuss security and privacy issues.
File containing list of resolutions of the Computer System Security and Privacy Advisory Board following their June 4, 1993 meeting. The resolutions generally state that further review of the Clipper Chip / key escrow encryption scheme was necessary.
File containing testimony of Dorothy Denning (Computer Science Department, Georgetown University), before the Subcommittee on Technology, Environment, and Aviation of the Committee on Science, Space and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives. She defends the security of the Clipper Chip scheme, and emphasizes the need to support encryption systems that meet the needs of both industry and national security. Testimony given May 3, 1994.
File containing revised technical summary of the Clipper Chip, dated April 21, 1993, by Dorothy Denning.
File containing February 21, 1994, report by Dorothy Denning of Georgetown University entitled "Encryption and Law Enforcement." Denning argues that the government's proposed Escrowed Encryption Standard is necessary for the lawful interception of communications by the government.
File containing reply by Haig Hovaness to Dorothy Denning's report, "Encryption and Law Enforcement." Hovaness notes that Denning's pro-Clipper position is in the minority, both within academic circles and with the American public.
File containing May 3, 1994, testimony of Dr. Whitfield Diffie, Distinguished Engineer at Sun Microsystems, Inc., before the Subcommittee on Technology and the Law of the Senate Judiciary Committee. Dr. Diffie discusses the problems of key escrow, the impact of key escrow on American business, and alternatives to key escrow.
File containing May 11, 1993, testimony of Whitfield Diffie of Sun Microsystems before an unknown US House of Representatives committee. Report entitled "The Impact of a Secret Cryptographic Standard on Encryption, Privacy, Law Enforcement and Technology." Diffie discusses the threat the government's key escrow encryption poses to businesses as well as to privacy.
File containing February 4, 1994 Department of Justice report of authorization procedures for release of encryption key components (according to federal, state and international rules).
File containing transcript of Hugh Downs' opposition to the Clipper Chip, as stated on ABC radio's "Perspective" (March 27, 1994 episode).
File containing May 6, 1993 letter to the President drafted by the Digital Privacy and Security Working Group (DPSWG) stating its concern with the Clipper Chip proposal
File containing questions regarding the Clipper Chip proposal drafted by the Digital Privacy and Security Working Group and sent to the White House, the Department of Commerce, and key members of Congress.
File containing December 6, 1993 letter drafted by the Digital Privacy and Security Working Group and sent to the White House, requesting the Administration lift export controls on DES, RSA and other mass market encryption.
File containing June 7, 1994 article from CyberWire Dispatch (written by the mysterious Meeks?) pointing out the security flaws in Skipjack, the computer code that underlies the Clipper Chip encryption scheme.
File containing preliminary draft of a report by Matt Blaze of AT&T Bell Laboratories entitled "Protocol Failure in the Escrowed Encryption Standard." This slightly technical account describes the security flaws (and offers suggestions on how to improve the security) of the cryptographic processors which make up the US government's Escrowed Encryption Standard (EES).
File containing same text as ees_flaw_blaze_paper file, except this one is in gzip-compressed PostScript document form.
File containing National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) responses to questions from the Senate Subcommittee on Technology and the Law, June 1994. Discussion focuses on the government's key escrow encryption scheme.
File containing article from the July 11, 1994 issue of Cyberwire Dispatch by Brock Meeks. Article deals with the government's agreement to license two key patents relating to the technical workings of the key escrow system, thereby avoiding a patent infringement lawsuit from patent holder Silvio Macali of MIT, as well as avoiding disclosure of currently unknown information about the Clipper program.
File containing memorandum from Tony Clark, Professional Staff Member of the Committee on Science, Space and Technology (U.S. House of Representatives), dated July 13, 1994, on the Encryption Standards and Procedures Act. The act would permit wider use of encryption technology while reasserting privacy rights and the government's authority to conduct electronic surveillance.
File containing an unofficial version of H. R. 5199, the Encryption Standards and Procedures Act of 1994, as introduced to the US House of Representatives. This resolution would amend the National Institute of Standards and Technology Act to provide for the establishment and management of voluntary encryption standards to protect the privacy and security of electronic information, and for other purposes.
File containing the words of Congressman George E. Brown, Jr., upon the introduction of the Encryption Standards and Procedures Act of 1994 to the US House of Representatives, on October 6, 1994. Congressman Brown emphasizes the purpose of the legislation as striking a balance between privacy and the government's need to decipher information obtained through lawful surveillance.
File containing EFF's reactions to the Encryption Standards & Procedures Act. Though EFF was pleased with the development of a more public process for establishment of Clipper-like escrowed encryption systems, this legislation does not offer a truly open federal encryption which preserves the right of private individuals to use any form of encryption, without restriction or penalty.
File containing January 24, 1994 letter to the President of the United States, signed by three dozen of the nation's leading cryptographers and coordinated by the Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, urging the President to abandon the Clipper proposal.
File containing testimony of David J. Farber, board member of EFF and professor of telecommunications systems at University of Pennsylvania, before the Committee on Science, Space and Technology (Subcommittee on Technology, Environment and Aviation) of the U.S. House of Representatives. In his testimony during the hearing on Communications and Computer Surveillance, Privacy and Security, Farber calls for closer inspection and public debate of the new government encryption proposals.
File containing February 9, 1994 notice that indicates the approval of the Dept. of Commerce / National Institute of Standards and Technology of Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) Publication 185, Escrowed Encryption Standard (EES).
File containing EFF comments on the proposed government Escrowed Encryption Standard (EES), addressed to the director of the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) and dated September 27, 1993. EFF is wary of government invasion in the new communications infrastructure. EFF also sees several public policy issues which still need to be resolved, including guaranteed continued legal use of all forms of encryption, revealing the identity of the the escrow agents who will hold the encryption keys, and the legal rights of escrow users.
File containing July 30, 1993 notice of a proposal by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) of a Federal Information Processing Standard for an Escrowed Encryption Standard (EES). The proposed standard would involve encryption technology developed by the federal government, and would enable the keys used in the encryption and decryption processes to be escrowed. This notice was issued in order to elicit reaction from the public.
File containing February 9, 1994 release from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Computer Security Bulletin Board announcing the Escrowed Encryption Standard (EES).This Standard specifies use of a symmetric-key encryption (and decryption) algorithm (SKIPJACK) and a Law Enforcement Access Field (LEAF) creation method (one part of a key escrow system) which provides for decryption of encrypted telecommunications when interception of the telecommunications is lawfully authorized.
File containing excerpts from an undated Washington Post article, entitled "Administration Steps Back on Computer Surveillance: 'Clipper Chip' Use to be Limited to Phones", written by Elizabeth Corcoran and John Mintz. Article basically states that the proposed federal encryption standard would only apply to telephone, and not computer, exchanges.
File containing letter from Vice President Al Gore to Representative Maria Cantwell, dated July 20, 1994, announcing the Administration's plan to limit the Escrowed Encryption Standard (EES) to voice communication only. Stanton McCandlish, EFF Online Activist/Archivist, adds his summary of the situation.
File containing July 22, 1994 'EFF Analysis of Vice-President Gore's Letter on Cryptography Policy.' EFF states that the Administration's re-thinking of plans for data encryption standards leaves the Clipper issue dead. EFF calls for improved telephone encryption standards, truly voluntary encryption standards and an open, public process to select them, no government escrow systems and a liberalization of export controls.
File containing July 21, 1994 'Statement of Senator Patrick Leahy on Vice President Gore's Clipper Chip Letter.' The Senator is concerned that the Administration is still embracing key escrow encryption technology and may still apply it to any communication which travels over telephone lines.
File containing February 10, 1994 newsflash from EFF concerning Vice President's Gore's remarks about key escrow policy. Gore questioned the Administration's key escrow policy and stated that the matter of who holds the escrow keys should be given more consideration. Gore also reiterates that some control of encryption technology must be maintained.
File containing February 4, 1994 'Statement of the Vice President,' a short blurb stating the Administration's desire to design a better encryption system that would meet the needs of individuals, businesses and national security.
File containing February 18, 1994 letter to Lee Hamilton, Chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee, drafted by EFF and other computer and electronic communications industry representatives and advocates. Letter expresses support of overall export control legislative reform. In particular, the letter expresses support for H.R. 3627, introduced by Representative Maria Cantwell, which would ease barriers for American companies looking to export information security software and hardware.
File containing May 3, 1994 Dept. of Justice statement of Jo Ann Harris, Asst. Attorney General, Criminal Division, before the Subcommittee on Technology and the Law, Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. Senate concerning the key escrow encryption program. Basically states that electronic surveillance has been crucial to effective law enforcement. Goes on to discuss the benefits of the proposed key escrow system in some detail.
File containing statement of Dr. Martha Harris, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs, date February 4, 1994, on encryption and export control reform. She emphasizes the need to expedite the export control reforms in order to maintain U.S. leadership in the world market for encryption technology.
File containing John Perry Barlow's article, "Jackboots on the Infobahn," which appeared in 'Wired' magazine, issue 2.04 (April 1994). Barlow, co-founder of EFF, ridicule's the Administration's Clipper and key escrow encryption plans.
File containing Executive Order 12333 on intelligence activities, issued December 4, 1981. This very long document outlines the boundaries of United States intelligence activities, including acceptable activities regarding electronic communication.
File containing February 4, 1994 White House announcement on the creation of a working group on data security. The working group would develop and implement Administration policies on encryption and digital telephony, working with industry as well as maintaining the needs of law enforcement.
File containing May 3, 1994 statement of James Kallstrom, Special Agent in Charge, Special Operations Division, New York Field Division, Federal Bureau of Investigation, before the Subcommittee on Technology, Environment and Aviation of the Committee on Science, Space and Technology, United States House of Representatives. Kallstrom urges the subcommittee to support the Administration's proposed 'Digital Telephony and Communications Privacy Improvement Act of 1994' in order to facilitate court-authorized electronic surveillance for the law enforcement and intelligence community.
File containing statement of Raymond G. Kammer, Deputy Director, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), before the House of Representatives Committee on Science, Space and Technology Subcommittee on Technology, Environment and Aviation, May 3, 1994. Kammer discusses the principal encryption policy issue confronting society, the importance of encryption technology, how voluntary key escrow encryption technically works and how it ensures privacy and confidentiality, alternatives to the voluntary key escrow initiative, critical components of the Administration's policy on encryption technology, recent initiative to modify Secure Hash Standard, and the effectiveness of the Computer Security Act of 1987.
File containing statement of Raymond G.Kammer, Deputy Director, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), before the Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. Senate May 3, 1994. Same as kammer_nist_clip-dt.testimony file in this directory.
File containing complete patent for Mr. Silvio Macali's key-escrow system, which involves 'a method, using a public-key cryptosystem, for enabling a predetermined entity to monitor communications of users suspected of unlawful activities while protecting the privacy of law-abiding users, wherein each user is assigned a pair of matching secret and public keys.' Contains lots of technical information, as well as several brief and useful summaries.
File containing May 3, 1994 statement by Sen. Patrick Leahy (VT), Chairman of the Technology and the Law Subcommittee, at the hearing on the Administration's Clipper Chip Key Escrow encryption program. Leahy questions the Clipper Chip's infringement on personal liberties, its effectiveness in deterring criminals, and its effects on US competitiveness.
File containing same text as leahy_clipper_050394.testimony file.
File containing report by Charles Lewis, dated February 26, 1994, entitled "Clipper Chip: Government Monopoly in the Making or Ineffective Law Enforcement." Lewis outlines the government's Escrowed Encryption Standard (EES) and its pitfalls.
File containing Libertarian Party press release, dated April 18, 1994, opposing the Digital Telephony and Communications Act of 1994, calling it a serious infringement of civil liberties and a violation of property rights.
Transcript from the Macneil-Lehrer News Hour from April 1994 reporting on the Clipper debate.
File containing letter, dated April 19, 1993, from Rep. Markey (Subcommittee on Telecommunications and Finance) to Ron Brown, Secretary of Commerce. Markey raises concerns regarding the Clipper Chip / key escrow proposal, including the security of the scheme, its effects on US competitiveness, the key escrow agents, among others.
File containing a fictional story by an anonymous author entitled "Master Key: A Clipper Story." It is an account of how, after nation-wide implementation of the Clipper Chip, one man breaks the encryption algorithm.
File containing letter from Stanton McCandlish, Online Activist / Archivist at EFF, to the President, dated February 9, 1994. Stanton expresses his displeasure at the pretty much the entire government Clipper Chip scheme.
File containing May 3, 1994 testimony of Mr. McConnell, the Director of the National Security Agency (NSA), before the Senate Judiciary Committee's Technology and the Law Subcommittee. McConnell supports the government's escrowed encryption initiative, seeing it as a good balance between the needs of law enforcement and the privacy of individuals. He also discusses the NSA's role as 'technical advisors' to the FBI and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
followup to the above file - Senators asked questions of NSA, and received the following largely disingenuous answers, many of them provably false with the most basic of logic. Closely parallels statements made by NIST at public meetings about "Clipper 2" in Sept. 1995.
Minnesota Session Law 1994 Chapter 325 excerpt, banning the use of Clipper technology in the encryption of medial records. Authored by state Rep. Marc Asch. Passed into law May 11, 1994.
File containing plenty of information (SEC files, annual report, etc.) on Myotronx, one of the companies selected to manufacture the Clipper chips for the US government's key escrowed encryption program. File dated April 1993.
File containing article from RISKS Digest, entitled "PC Software Foils Wiretaps," dated May 10, 1995 and written by Simson Garfinkel. The article is about Nautilus, a program developed by three west-coast computer programmers, a program which can secure any PC from wiretaps. The program is a rebuff at the US government's attempt to develop the Clipper scheme.
File containing February 4, 1994 press release entitled "NIST Calls for Partners in Developing Key Escrowing Hardware.' The release, from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), announces an opportunity to join a cooperative research consortium for developing the next generation of encryption technology for computer hardware that contains integrated cryptographic key escrowing techniques.
File containing a release from the National Institute of Standards and Technology Computer Security Bulletin Board, dated February 4, 1994, entitled 'Fact Sheet: NIST Cryptography Activities.' The fact sheet contains information on NIST involvement in cryptography activities, especially the Escrowed Encryption Standard and the Digital Signature Standard.
File containing statement of Raymond Kammer, Acting Director, National Institute of Standards and Technology, before the House Subcommittee on Telecommunications and Finance (Committee on Energy and Commerce), on April 29, 1993. Kammer discusses NIST's activities in telecommunications security, the planned recertification of the Data Encryption Standard, the proposed Digital Signature Standard, and the Clipper Chip.
File containing February 4, 1994 press release entitled "NIST Announces Voluntary Escrowed Encryption Standard to Promote Secure Telecommunications." The release announces NIST's support of 'the voluntary standard that can be used by government agencies or the private sector to provide strong encryption protection for sensitive but unclassified voice, fax and data communications over telephone lines.'
File containing a Computer Systems Laboratory Bulletin, dated February 1991, entitled "Computer Security Roles of NIST and NSA." The bulletin outlines the responsibilities of the National Security Agency (NSA) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in computer security and gives points of contact for agency computer security and information resources management personnel.
File containing an article from TELECOM Digest entitled "FOIA Jewel: Original Charter of the National Security Agency," and dated February 11, 1990. Contains the secret memorandum ("Subject: Communications Intelligence Activities") dated October 24, 1952, to the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Defense, from President Truman. It marked the secret birth of the NSA.
File containing NSA responses to questions posed by Joe Abernathy of the Houston Chronicle, dated June 10, 1992. Abernathy poses questions on the Digital Encryption Standard (DES) and the Digital Signature Standard (DSS), as well as the purpose of limiting export of cryptographic technology, and other related questions.
File containing a summary / excerpt from ECHO's 'Internet Conference' (as seen by Steve Miller, in attendance at the conference) of April 23, 1994, which explains the National Security Agency's (NSA) position on the Escrowed Encryption Standard. NSA refutes any notions of privacy invasion, security, etc. regarding the encryption standard being proposed by the government.
File containing notes on a meeting between representatives of Bell Laboratories and a group from the NSA and FBI to discuss the key escrow proposal. These notes are dated February 2, 1994, and cover such things as NSA's motives and goals for the key escrow proposal, the security of the Clipper chips, the authority to undertake electronic surveillance, and some technical discussion of the hardware.
File containing Office of Technology Assessment report, dated September 15, 1994, entitled 'Information Security and Privacy in Network Environments.' This extremely long report was prepared in response to a request by the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs and the House Subcommittee on Telecommunications and Finance. The report focuses on policy issues in three areas: 1) national cryptography policy, including federal information processing standards and export controls; 2) guidance on safeguarding unclassified information in federal agencies; and 3) legal issues and information security, including electronic commerce, privacy, and intellectual property.
File containing summary of ota_priv_sec.report file.
File containing article from Computer underground Digest (issue # 6.87) by Shayne Weyker, entitled "Clipper: How Much Privacy Can We Afford? How Much Security Do We Need?" Weyker discusses the pros and cons of both sides of the Clipper debate.
File containing an abstract from the Internet Multicasting Service entitled 'A Proposal to Turn on the Lights on the Information Highway,' written by Carl Malamud and dated March 4, 1994. Malamud argues for a fundamental system of public key cryptography to be incorporated within computer networks, and not necessarily one sponsored by the government.
File containing February 4, 1994 Dept. of Justice press release, 'Attorney General Makes Key Escrow Encryption Announcements', announcing the two government entities who will hold the escrowed key components for encryption using the key escrow encryption method. The two agencies are the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) -- part of the Dept. of Commerce -- and the Automated Systems division of the Dept. of the Treasury.
File containing what appears to be a radio clip entitled 'Presumed Guilty' by Glen L. Roberts. He basically reduces the Clipper Chip as an attempt by the government to lull is into a false sense of security.
File containing sample opposition letter to the Clipper Chip addressed to your Senator/Congressman/President.
File containing an interim report, 'SKIPJACK Review', on the SKIPJACK algorithm. The report is dated July 28, 1993 and authored by Ernest Brickell (Sandia National Labs), Dorothy Denning (Georgetown University), Stephen Kent (BBN Communications Corp.), David Maher (AT&T), and Walter Tuchman (Amperif Corp.). The report evaluates the strength of the SKIPJACK algorithm. Conclusion? Not significant risk that SKIPJACK will be broken in the next 30 - 40 years.
File containing Time/CNN Poll -- "Who Should Keep the Keys", TIME, March 4, 1994 -- stating 80% polled oppose the Clipper Chip.
File containing May 3, 1994 testimony of Stephen Walker, President, Trusted Information Systems, Inc., for the Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Technology and the Law, United States Senate. Walker testifies the negative impact that U.S. export control regulations on cryptography would have on U.S. economic interests. He also is concerned about invasion of privacy rights, as well.
File containing a letter from Grady Ward to Congressman Dan Hamburg, dated April 28, 1993, opposing 'President Clinton's Clipper Chip wiretap proposal.' Ward is wary of privacy invasion, as well as the fact that specifications for the chip remain classified.
File containing statement of Willis Hare, Chairman of the Computer System Security and Privacy Advisory Board, before the Subcommittee on Technology, Environment and Aviation, U.S. House of Representatives, on May 3, 1994. Statement basically discusses what the Computer System Security and Privacy Advisory Board is -- essentially a forum in which public and government views on cryptographic policy could be heard.
File containing the response to 114 questions sent to President Clinton by the Digital Privacy & Security Working Group on the Clipper Chip. The response was received July 29, 1994, from John Podesta, Asst. to the President and Staff Secretary. Questions / answers deal with the key escrow initiative.
File containing White House fact sheet ('Public Encryption Management') released in conjunction with the announcement of the Clipper Chip encryption technology. Short blurb that goes through the basics. Not dated.
File containing February 4, 1994, EFF Press Release regarding the statements made by the Clinton Administration and various agencies before Congress. EFF expressed its displeasure at the news that the Administration is not backing down on Clipper, key escrow and ITAR restrictions.
File containing February 4, 1994, White House Press Release -- "Questions and Answers about the Clinton Administration's Encryption Policy." Q-A concerns the encryption technology review, which, according to the Administration, confirmed the need for key escrow. Q-A also discusses the interests of national security and law enforcement, as well as the issue of export controls on encryption.
File containing the original Clipper Chip announcement from the Office of the Press Secretary of the White House, dated April 16, 1993. The White House promises that the technology will meet the privacy needs of individuals and business as weel as meeting the interests of law enforcement and national security. A short Question / Answer clip follows the announcement.
File containing February 4, 1994, White House Press Release announcing the recommendations resulting from the interagency review of encryption technology commenced in April of 1993. The Administration proclaimed their approval of the Escrowed Encryption Standard (EES) and announced the holders of the escrowed keys. The Administration also announced the creation of a working group to work with industry and public-interst groups to develop new encryption technologies and to refine Administration policies regarding encryption.
File containing the definition of Tesserea, from Starr's History of the Classical World and the Oxford Unabridged.
File containing report from Mark Voorhees ('Voorhees Reports') entitled "Why I Care About Clipper", and dated March 25, 1994. Voorhees states that, civil liberties aside, the Clipper chip would be bad for American business. He also raises the issue of NSA involvement in the initiative, something that should concern business.
File containing a WIRED Online 'Call to Action' on Electronic Privacy rallying resistance to the Clinton Administration's support for the Clipper Chip and the SKIPJACK encryption scheme. WIRED is especially concerned with the access government would have to private communications if this initiative were followed.
File containing Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR) brief report on the FBI's document release concerning the Digital Telephone Initiative. CPSR claims that the FBI is wrong in asserting that advances in telecommunications technology have hampered law enforcement efforts to execute court-authorized wiretaps. CPSR also states that it plans to continue pursuing Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) litigation against the FBI.
File containing February 13, 1995 Center for Democracy and Technology Policy Post announcing 'X9 Committee Agrees to Develop 3x DES Encryption Standard.' The Accredited Standards Committee (X9) is responsible for setting data security standards for the US banking and financial services industry. The NSA lobbied against development of 3x DES, as it supports development of the government-backed Escrowed Encryption Standard (Clipper).

Subdirectories in This Archive

Up to the Parent Directory
Old/outdated material, preserved for historical interest.
EFF board member John Gilmore's attempt at filing a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request with the Clipper key 'escrow agents' for the database of Clipper key components.

Related On-Site Resources

Clipper II Archive
Directory pertaining to the Clipper chip and related US govt. encryption-related "initiatives" (other keywords include: Escrowed Encrption Standard, EES, Tessera, Skipjack, and Capstone). Clipper_II/ is a Link to directory of info on later (1995) NIST "Clipper II" key "escrow" scheme
Clipper III
- Link to directory of documents on the 1996 IWGCP draft key "escrow" scheme, referred to commonly as "Clipper III" or "Clipper 3"), and revised 1996-7 US crypto export policy in which medium strength crypto can be exported but only if key "escrowed" withing 2 years (commonly called "Clipper 3.11").
Directory of info on key "escrow" and "trusted third party" schemes in Europe, labelled "Euro-Clipper" by many.
Key Escrow
Link to directory of files on the US Administration's 1995 (and onward? We hope not...) "Clipper 2": Commercial key escrow. This issue ties in directly with ITAR crypto export policy (see /pub/Privacy/ITAR_export/).

Links to Related Off-Site Resources

Declassified documents
reveal that, despite promises of "voluntary" key escrow, FBI and NSA both believe that Clipper-like systems "will only work" if made mandatory (docs available via EPIC web site).
Brad Cox's "Big Brother" Document Archive
Electronic Privacy Info. Center's Encryption Policy pages
CDT Crypto Issues Page
Encryption Policy Resource Pages
Internet Privacy Coalition