Last Updated Thu Mar 13 10:42:45 PDT 2003
Files in this Archive
- File on two good answers to frequently asked
questions about the Clipper Chip, dated March 9, 1994.
- John Perry Barlow's July 1992 article
"Decrypting the Puzzle Palace," describing how the NSA seeks to
dominate cyberspace. A wealth of early background material on FBI
and NSA surveillance, political moves to oppose general public
possession and use of strong encryption, and erection of export
controls against encryption.
- File on October 20, 1993 700 Club report
on the Clipper Chip. Warns of the dangers of this chip, as well as
espousing the importance of cryptographic freedoms. A good and
simple (meaning non-technical) explanation of the Clipper Chip scheme,
and not religious in tone.
- File on Mobile Office Online's Open
Press Conference of August 17, 1994 on electronic privacy. Guests
included David Farber, board member of EFF. Issues discussed include
privacy of e-mail and the Clipper Chip scheme. Farber emphasizes the
negative aspects of the Clipper Chip and government intervention.
- May 18, 1993 file on the Clipper Chip, with
emphasis on more technical information.
- File on the March 10, 1994 online debate
between John Perry Barlow of EFF and Dr. Dorothy Denning, over the
Clipper Chip issue. Barlow is co-founder of the Electronic
Frontier Foundation, which promotes freedom in digital media. A
recognized commentator on computer security, he is argues against the
Clipper Chip Dr. Denning is the chairperson of the Computer Science
Department at Georgetown University. A leading expert on cryptography and
data security, she favors the adoption of the Clipper Chip. Presented by
the Time Online Forum of America Online.
- Statement against Clipper from former
Canadian Defense Minister Perrin Beatty (from May 14, 1995, _Toronto_Sun_)
- File on the May 3, 1994 testimony of
Jerry J. Berman, the then Executive Director of EFF, before the Committee
on Science, Space and Technology, Subcommittee on Science, Space and
Technology, U.S. House of Representatives hearing on Communications
and Computer Surveillance, Privacy and Security. Berman states EFF's
position on the Clipper Chip / Digital Telephony issues -- that
Administration policy developed in this area threatens individual
privacy rights, will thwart the development of the information
infrastructure, and does not even meet the stated needs of law
enforcement and national security agencies. Berman calls for a fresh
and comprehensive look at these issues.
- File on article from Jim Bidzos of PKP/RSADSI,
the makers of the RSA encryption products, opposing the Administration's
Clipper chip scheme. First published in Computer Underground Digest
6.23. Seeks to strike a balance between the needs of the encryption
industry, the public, and the government.
- File on the June 15, 1994 floor
statement of Congressman Jack Brooks, U.S. House of Representatives --
"Encryption Policy Endangers U.S. Competitiveness in Global
Marketplace", which deals with the 'fanciful' notion of limiting the
development, use and export of encryption when the technology is
already available worldwide. Are we simply hurting US industry?
- File on May 3, 1994 testimony by Dr.
Clinton C. Brooks of the NSA\ before the House Science, Space and
Technology Committee / Subcommittee on Technology, Environment, and
Aviation. Discusses the NSA\'s views on encryption and its involvement
with the Administration's key escrow encryption program, which he
states encourages the use of the government designed encryption
microcircuits, commonly referred to as CLIPPER chips. Brooks states that
Clipper chips provide high quality privacy protection, but also enable
law enforcement organizations, when lawfully authorized, to obtain
the key that unlocks the encryption and thereby maintain the present
ability to conduct electronic surveillance.
- File on some questions and answers about the NSA\'s
Capstone Chip, a hardware oriented, cryptographic device that
implements the same cryptographic algorithm as the Clipper Chip.
- "A Cautionary Note to Congress" on Clipper by ICS
editor Steven Peterson, who emphasizes that 'there is no way
any team of individuals can stay ahead of the collective abilities of
an entire sub-culture bent on maintaining its right to privacy.'
- File containing transcript of the "Who Holds the
Keys?" session of the 1992 Computers, Privacy and Freedom Conference.
The session was chaired by Dorothy Denning, and the panel included EFF
co-founders John Gilmore and John Perry Barlow. The session
dealt with cryptography and some of the implications of cryptography
in terms of personal privacy, electronic communications, etc. Also
discussed was the extent to which the government should have control
over the technology.
- File containing transcript of "Data Encryption:
Who Holds the Keys" session of the Fourth Conference on Computers,
Freedom and Privacy in March of 1994. Bob Smith, publisher of Privacy
Journal, chaired the panel of George Davida, cryptography researcher
at the University of Wisconsin, Stuart Baker, general counsel at NSA, and
David Banisar of the Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility.
Issues discussed include government infringement on privacy, the
Clipper Chip, and other matters relating to cryptography.
- Remarks by Bruce Sterling, science-fiction
writer, at the Computers, Freedom and Privacy Conference IV, in
Chicago, March 26, 1994. Sterling notes the general negative tone of
conference, due to its heavy discussions on government infringement on
privacy. Sterling also expresses his opinion that large government
agencies, such as the NSA, are incapable of thorough surveillance of a
clark_clipper.letter - Letter by Robert Clark of the University of
Denver's Math/CS Department, to President Clinton denouncing the
Clipper Chip scheme. Vehemently opposes the idea of government being
capable of monitoring communication.
- File which contains documents from the May 3,
1994 Clipper and Digital Telephony hearings of the US Senate and House
of Representatives. Documents include the Hearing Charter, the witness
list of the House hearing, a chart showing how key "escrow" works, and
a chart showing how Clipper works. Hearing objectives include: review
of the Clipper Chip and digital telephony legislation, assessment of
alternatives to these initiatives, and evaluation of the adequacy of
the Computer Security Act of 1987. Witnesses include Jerry Berman,
former Executive Director of EFF.
- May 4, 1994 EFF summary file of the
Clipper Hearing by the Senate Subcommittee on Technology and the
Law, and the House Subcommittee on Technology, Environment and
Aviation hearing on Clipper and Digital Telephony proposals. Testimony
was presented by EFF's Executive Director Jerry Berman and Board Member
David Farber testified at the House hearing. Berman argues that Clipper
would only solve the Administration's security needs only if criminals
used it; Farber stresses the need to consider the issue more carefully
- File containing a short (and potentially
over-simplified) glossary of terms relevant to the Clipper debate.
- File containing information about the Clipper Chip when
the scheme was first announced back in April 1993; includes White
House Press Release detailing the new encryption technique, AT&T release
expressing their desire to incorporate the chip in their
communications equipment, EFF's and CPSR's cautionary response to
Clipper, and various newspaper articles on the introduction of the
- File containing "Chipping Away at Privacy," an
article written by Shari Steele and Daniel Weitzner (both with EFF)
analyzing the Clipper Chip issue. The article raises the issues of
the security of the key escrow system and the untested government
encryption algorithm, as well as the the effect of the Clipper Chip
scheme on the right to privacy and other constitutional rights.
- File containg frequently asked questions (FAQ) about the
Clipper Chip. The basics.
- File containing a "What is the Clipper Chip?" FAQ. Some
more basics, much like the clipper1.faq.
- An audio file of US Vice President Gore
discussion Clipper, and another sound file of former EFF Sr. Staff
Counsel Daniel Weitzner commenting on the Gore statements. These are .au
(u-law or mu-law) sound file, tar-archived, and gzip-compressed.
You will need a version of tar (e.g. Tar4DOS, MacTar, etc.) for your
platform to extract these files, as well as a soundfile player that
will play .au files.
- File containing information on how you can add
your name to the petition opposing the Clipper proposal.
- File containing article from July 20, 1994 issue
of CyberWire Dispatch, written by Brock Meeks, announcing a weakening
in the Administration's stance on the Clipper Chip.
- File containing a technical analysis of
the Clipper Chip, dated April 30, 1993).
- News item which appeared in the March 1994 CPSR /
Portland Newsletter entilted "Gilmore Files FOIA for Clipper Key
Database", describing EFF board member John Gilmore's attempt at filing a
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request with the Clipper key 'escrow
agents' for the database of Clipper key components. Releasing the
information would effectively give anyone the ability to decrypt
- File containing letter from Lee Tien, John
Gilmore's attorney, dated May 4, 1994, announcing the Justice
Department's agreement to release some of the documents relating to
the Clipper Chip and Digital Telephony issues.
- File containing John Gilmore's account of
the US Government's delay regarding the FOIA requests of the Clipper
key database. Copies of the two appeal letters also included.
- File containing article from WIRED 2.06
entitled 'Don't Worry Be Happy' by Stewart A. Baker, Chief Counsel for
the NSA, on the positive points of the Clipper Chip. Baker underscores
the dangers of unescrowed private encryption and the benefits of a key
escrow encryption scheme, which would meet the needs of privacy and
- File containing article from October 1993
issue of PC/Computing by Penn Jillette entitled "Subterranean Clipper
Chip Blues," espousing (with a comic twist) the virtues of privacy.
- File containing "Clipper Q and A" by W. Mark Lloyd,
originally published in Computer Underground Digest 6.17. A good
source for information on Clipper, Skipjack and the key escrow
- File containing May 3, 1994 press release on
statements made by National Institute of Standards and Technology
(NIST) Deputy Director Raymond Kammer to the Senate Committee on the
Judiciary and to the House Subcommittee on Technology, Environment and
Aviation. Kammer stresses the voluntary nature of the telecommunications
security initiative (Clipper Chip), and declares that it is not
intended to be mandated in the future.
- File containing National Institute of
Standards and Technology (NIST) replies to some questions and
concerns raised by Mr. Jim Bidzos of RSA Data Security, Inc. regarding
the Clipper Chip scheme. Both sides address issues which include:
the potential of the Clipper being legislated by Congress, the
security risks involved in the encryption key escrow process, the
threat of communications being compromised by the government, the
effect of this issue on US competitiveness, and others.
- File containing paper by Stephen T. Walker of Trusted
Information Systems, Inc., entitled "The Clipper Initiative: All
Americans Have a Right to Privacy! But Key Escrow Won't Help", dated
August 31, 1993. Walker states that key escrow technology will not
protect Americans from criminals, and goes on to suggest further
dialogue between the public and private sector on the matter.
- File containing article by Julian Dibbell
entitled "Code Warriors: Battling for the Keys to Privacy in the Info
Age", originally published in The Village Voice, August 3, 1993.
Deals with government paranoia regarding secrecy.
- "Law Enforcement and The
Architecture of Cyberspace -- Should the Cops on the Beat Design the
Electronic Street?", article by David Johnson. Excerpt: "The
Administration has made its position clear: it will seek to
encourage the use of the "Clipper Chip" and push for legislation that
will require electronic communications systems to be designed to
facilitate wiretapping and surveillance in real time...So we have a set
of proposals that, in somewhat breath-taking fashion, claim for the
cops not only the right to walk the beat but a privilege to say just
how the street will be designed...But no such origin accounts for
our best public spaces and I can tell you...that putting wiretapping
at the top of the design priority list is a really dumb idea..."
- File containing June 9, 1993 testimony of Marc
Rotenberg, Director, CPSR Washington Office, before the the House
Subcommittee on Telecommunications and Finance, chaired by Congressman
Edward Markey. Markey's comments indicate that the Clipper proposal
was not well-received by policymakers. Rotenberg raises questions
about Clipper's security, the intent of the government in using a key
escrow arrangement (Must they have the ability to intercept
communications?) and supports further study into the Clipper proposal
and the filed of cryptography.
- File containing December 8, 1993 position
by the Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR)
opposing the Clipper Chip scheme, drafted by Marc Rotenberg, Director,
David Sobel, Legal Counsel, and Dave Banisar, Policy Analyst. Letter
sent to President Clinton.
- File containing statement by the Computer
Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR) calling for a "complete
overhaul in the federal government's information classification
system, including the removal of cryptography from the categories of
information automatically deemed to be secret."
- File containing a long article by J.
Orlin Grabbe, entitled "The End of Ordinary Money", copyrighted 1995.
Deals with the issues of cryptography and electronic funds.
- File containing December 8, 1993 announcement of
EFF's official position on cryptography and privacy. EFF stated it's
opposition to the original Clipper/Skipjack plan, as well as reiterating
the need to lift restrictions on encryption.
- File containing December 1, 1993 report
(revised January 30, 1994) "Cryptography: Policy and Technology
Trends", a report written under contract and supported in part by the US
Department of Energy. The report discusses the fight between law
enforcement / national security agencies, who would like to keep strict
control of over civilian encryption, and industry / individuals /
privacy rights advocates, who wish to expand their ability to distribute
and use cryptographic products as they please. The report also
analyzes the trends in encryption technology, markets, export controls,
and legislation. Very good, unbiased approach to the issue.
- Joe Abernathy's June 1992 article describing
why law enforcement agencies fear the
development of strong cryptographic programs.
- File containing Computer Professionals for
Social Responsibility (CPSR) Cryptography Resolution, adopted on October
18, 1993. CPSR supports the right of all individuals to design,
distribute, obtain and use encryption technology and opposes any
government attempt to interfere with the exercise of that right.
- File containing comments of the EFF regarding key
escrow chip cryptographic technology and government policies and
regulations before the Computer System Security and Privacy Advisory
Board of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
EFF's statements deal with the possibility of encryption technologies
being mandated, policy concerns about a government-run key escrow
system, the constitutional implications of government controls on use of
encryption, and the like.
- File containing notice of the June 2-4 1993
meetings of the Computer System Security and Privacy Board of the
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to discuss
security and privacy issues.
- File containing list of resolutions of the
Computer System Security and Privacy Advisory Board following their
June 4, 1993 meeting. The resolutions generally state that further
review of the Clipper Chip / key escrow encryption scheme was necessary.
- File containing testimony of Dorothy Denning
(Computer Science Department, Georgetown University), before the
Subcommittee on Technology, Environment, and Aviation of the Committee on
Science, Space and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives. She
defends the security of the Clipper Chip scheme, and emphasizes the need
to support encryption systems that meet the needs of both industry and
national security. Testimony given May 3, 1994.
- File containing revised technical summary of
the Clipper Chip, dated April 21, 1993, by Dorothy Denning.
- File containing February 21, 1994, report by
Dorothy Denning of Georgetown University entitled "Encryption and Law
Enforcement." Denning argues that the government's proposed Escrowed
Encryption Standard is necessary for the lawful interception of
communications by the government.
- File containing reply by Haig Hovaness to
Dorothy Denning's report, "Encryption and Law Enforcement." Hovaness
notes that Denning's pro-Clipper position is in the minority, both within
academic circles and with the American public.
- File containing May 3, 1994,
testimony of Dr. Whitfield Diffie, Distinguished Engineer at Sun
Microsystems, Inc., before the Subcommittee on Technology and the Law of
the Senate Judiciary Committee. Dr. Diffie discusses the problems of key
escrow, the impact of key escrow on American business, and alternatives
to key escrow.
- File containing May 11, 1993, testimony of
Whitfield Diffie of Sun Microsystems before an unknown US House of
Representatives committee. Report entitled "The Impact of a Secret
Cryptographic Standard on Encryption, Privacy, Law Enforcement and
Technology." Diffie discusses the threat the government's key escrow
encryption poses to businesses as well as to privacy.
- File containing February 4, 1994 Department
of Justice report of authorization procedures for release of encryption
key components (according to federal, state and international rules).
- File containing transcript of Hugh Downs'
opposition to the Clipper Chip, as stated on ABC radio's "Perspective"
(March 27, 1994 episode).
- File containing May 6, 1993 letter to the
President drafted by the Digital Privacy and Security Working Group
(DPSWG) stating its concern with the Clipper Chip proposal
- File containing questions regarding the
Clipper Chip proposal drafted by the Digital Privacy and Security
Working Group and sent to the White House, the Department of Commerce,
and key members of Congress.
- File containing December 6, 1993 letter
drafted by the Digital Privacy and Security Working
Group and sent to the White House, requesting the Administration lift
export controls on DES, RSA and other mass market encryption.
- File containing June 7, 1994 article from CyberWire
Dispatch (written by the mysterious Meeks?) pointing out the security
flaws in Skipjack, the computer code that underlies the Clipper Chip
- File containing preliminary draft of a report by
Matt Blaze of AT&T Bell Laboratories entitled "Protocol Failure in the
Escrowed Encryption Standard." This slightly technical account describes
the security flaws (and offers suggestions on how to improve the
security) of the cryptographic processors which make up the US
government's Escrowed Encryption Standard (EES).
- File containing same text as
ees_flaw_blaze_paper file, except this one is in gzip-compressed
PostScript document form.
- File containing National Institute for
Standards and Technology (NIST) responses to questions from the Senate
Subcommittee on Technology and the Law, June 1994. Discussion focuses
on the government's key escrow encryption scheme.
- File containing article from the July 11,
1994 issue of Cyberwire Dispatch by Brock Meeks. Article deals with the
government's agreement to license two key patents relating to the
technical workings of the key escrow system, thereby avoiding a patent
infringement lawsuit from patent holder Silvio Macali of MIT, as well as
avoiding disclosure of currently unknown information about the Clipper
- File containing memorandum from
Tony Clark, Professional Staff Member of the Committee on Science, Space
and Technology (U.S. House of Representatives), dated July 13, 1994,
on the Encryption Standards and Procedures Act. The act would permit
wider use of encryption technology while reasserting privacy rights and
the government's authority to conduct electronic surveillance.
- File containing an unofficial version
of H. R. 5199, the Encryption Standards and Procedures Act of 1994, as
introduced to the US House of Representatives. This resolution would
amend the National Institute of Standards and Technology Act to
provide for the establishment and management of voluntary encryption
standards to protect the privacy and security of electronic
information, and for other purposes.
- File containing the
words of Congressman George E. Brown, Jr., upon the introduction of the
Encryption Standards and Procedures Act of 1994 to the US House of
Representatives, on October 6, 1994. Congressman Brown emphasizes the
purpose of the legislation as striking a balance between privacy and the
government's need to decipher information obtained through lawful
- File containing EFF's reactions to
the Encryption Standards & Procedures Act. Though EFF was pleased with
the development of a more public process for establishment of
Clipper-like escrowed encryption systems, this legislation does not offer
a truly open federal encryption which preserves the right of private
individuals to use any form of encryption, without restriction or penalty.
- File containing January 24, 1994 letter to the
President of the United States, signed by three dozen of the nation's
leading cryptographers and coordinated by the Computer Professionals for
Social Responsibility, urging the President to abandon the Clipper
- File containing testimony of David J. Farber,
board member of EFF and professor of telecommunications systems at
University of Pennsylvania, before the Committee on Science, Space and
Technology (Subcommittee on Technology, Environment and Aviation) of the
U.S. House of Representatives. In his testimony during the hearing on
Communications and Computer Surveillance, Privacy and Security, Farber
calls for closer inspection and public debate of the new government
- File containing February 9, 1994 notice that
indicates the approval of the Dept. of Commerce / National Institute of
Standards and Technology of Federal Information Processing Standards
(FIPS) Publication 185, Escrowed Encryption Standard (EES).
- File containing EFF comments on the proposed
government Escrowed Encryption Standard (EES), addressed to the
director of the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST)
and dated September 27, 1993. EFF is wary of government invasion in
the new communications infrastructure. EFF also sees several public
policy issues which still need to be resolved, including guaranteed
continued legal use of all forms of encryption, revealing the identity of
the the escrow agents who will hold the encryption keys, and the legal
rights of escrow users.
- File containing July 30, 1993 notice of a
proposal by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
of a Federal Information Processing Standard for an Escrowed Encryption
Standard (EES). The proposed standard would involve encryption
technology developed by the federal government, and would enable the keys
used in the encryption and decryption processes to be escrowed. This
notice was issued in order to elicit reaction from the public.
- File containing February 9, 1994 release from
the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Computer
Security Bulletin Board announcing the Escrowed Encryption Standard
(EES).This Standard specifies use of a symmetric-key encryption (and
decryption) algorithm (SKIPJACK) and a Law Enforcement Access Field
(LEAF) creation method (one part of a key escrow system) which provides
for decryption of encrypted telecommunications when interception of the
telecommunications is lawfully authorized.
- File containing excerpts from an undated
Washington Post article, entitled "Administration Steps Back on Computer
Surveillance: 'Clipper Chip' Use to be Limited to Phones", written by
Elizabeth Corcoran and John Mintz. Article basically states that the
proposed federal encryption standard would only apply to telephone, and
not computer, exchanges.
- File containing letter from
Vice President Al Gore to Representative Maria Cantwell, dated July 20,
1994, announcing the Administration's plan to limit the Escrowed
Encryption Standard (EES) to voice communication only. Stanton
McCandlish, EFF Online Activist/Archivist, adds his summary of the
- File containing July 22, 1994 'EFF
Analysis of Vice-President Gore's Letter on Cryptography Policy.' EFF
states that the Administration's re-thinking of plans for data encryption
standards leaves the Clipper issue dead. EFF calls for improved
telephone encryption standards, truly voluntary encryption standards and
an open, public process to select them, no government escrow systems
and a liberalization of export controls.
- File containing July 21, 1994
'Statement of Senator Patrick Leahy on Vice President Gore's Clipper Chip
Letter.' The Senator is concerned that the Administration is still
embracing key escrow encryption technology and may still apply it to
any communication which travels over telephone lines.
- File containing February 10, 1994 newsflash from EFF
concerning Vice President's Gore's remarks about key escrow policy.
Gore questioned the Administration's key escrow policy and stated that
the matter of who holds the escrow keys should be given more
consideration. Gore also reiterates that some control of encryption
technology must be maintained.
- File containing February 4, 1994 'Statement of
the Vice President,' a short blurb stating the Administration's desire
to design a better encryption system that would meet the needs of
individuals, businesses and national security.
- File containing February 18, 1994 letter
to Lee Hamilton, Chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee,
drafted by EFF and other computer and electronic communications
industry representatives and advocates. Letter expresses support of
overall export control legislative reform. In particular, the letter
expresses support for H.R. 3627, introduced by Representative Maria
Cantwell, which would ease barriers for American companies looking to
export information security software and hardware.
- File containing May 3, 1994 Dept.
of Justice statement of Jo Ann Harris, Asst. Attorney General, Criminal
Division, before the Subcommittee on Technology and the Law, Committee
on the Judiciary, U.S. Senate concerning the key escrow encryption
program. Basically states that electronic surveillance has been
crucial to effective law enforcement. Goes on to discuss the benefits
of the proposed key escrow system in some detail.
- File containing statement of Dr. Martha Harris,
Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs,
date February 4, 1994, on encryption and export control reform. She
emphasizes the need to expedite the export control reforms in order to
maintain U.S. leadership in the world market for encryption technology.
- File containing John Perry
Barlow's article, "Jackboots on the Infobahn," which appeared in 'Wired'
magazine, issue 2.04 (April 1994). Barlow, co-founder of EFF, ridicule's
the Administration's Clipper and key escrow encryption plans.
- File containing Executive Order 12333 on
intelligence activities, issued December 4, 1981. This very long
document outlines the boundaries of United States intelligence
activities, including acceptable activities regarding electronic
- File containing February 4, 1994 White
House announcement on the creation of a working group on data security.
The working group would develop and implement Administration policies
on encryption and digital telephony, working with industry as well as
maintaining the needs of law enforcement.
- File containing May 3, 1994 statement of
James Kallstrom, Special Agent in Charge, Special Operations Division,
New York Field Division, Federal Bureau of Investigation, before the
Subcommittee on Technology, Environment and Aviation of the Committee on
Science, Space and Technology, United States House of
Representatives. Kallstrom urges the subcommittee to support the
Administration's proposed 'Digital Telephony and Communications Privacy
Improvement Act of 1994' in order to facilitate court-authorized
electronic surveillance for the law enforcement and intelligence
- File containing statement of Raymond G.
Kammer, Deputy Director, National Institute of Standards and
Technology (NIST), before the House of Representatives Committee on
Science, Space and Technology Subcommittee on Technology, Environment and
Aviation, May 3, 1994. Kammer discusses the principal encryption policy
issue confronting society, the importance of encryption technology, how
voluntary key escrow encryption technically works and how
it ensures privacy and confidentiality, alternatives to the
voluntary key escrow initiative, critical components of the
Administration's policy on encryption technology, recent initiative to
modify Secure Hash Standard, and the effectiveness of the Computer
Security Act of 1987.
- File containing statement of
Raymond G.Kammer, Deputy Director, National Institute of Standards and
Technology (NIST), before the Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. Senate
May 3, 1994. Same as kammer_nist_clip-dt.testimony file in this
- File containing complete patent for Mr. Silvio
Macali's key-escrow system, which involves 'a method, using a public-key
cryptosystem, for enabling a predetermined entity to monitor
communications of users suspected of unlawful activities
while protecting the privacy of law-abiding users, wherein each user
is assigned a pair of matching secret and public keys.' Contains lots
of technical information, as well as several brief and useful summaries.
- File containing May 3, 1994 statement by
Sen. Patrick Leahy (VT), Chairman of the Technology and the Law
Subcommittee, at the hearing on the Administration's Clipper Chip Key
Escrow encryption program. Leahy questions the Clipper Chip's
infringement on personal liberties, its effectiveness in deterring
criminals, and its effects on US competitiveness.
- File containing same text as
- File containing report by Charles Lewis, dated
February 26, 1994, entitled "Clipper Chip: Government Monopoly in the
Making or Ineffective Law Enforcement." Lewis outlines the
government's Escrowed Encryption Standard (EES) and its pitfalls.
- File containing Libertarian Party press
release, dated April 18, 1994, opposing the Digital Telephony and
Communications Act of 1994, calling it a serious infringement of civil
liberties and a violation of property rights.
- Transcript from the Macneil-Lehrer News
Hour from April 1994 reporting on the Clipper debate.
- File containing letter, dated April 19,
1993, from Rep. Markey (Subcommittee on Telecommunications and Finance)
to Ron Brown, Secretary of Commerce. Markey raises concerns regarding
the Clipper Chip / key escrow proposal, including the security of the
scheme, its effects on US competitiveness, the key escrow agents, among
- File containing a fictional story by an
anonymous author entitled "Master Key: A Clipper Story." It is an
account of how, after nation-wide implementation of the Clipper Chip, one
man breaks the encryption algorithm.
- File containing letter from Stanton
McCandlish, Online Activist / Archivist at EFF, to the President, dated
February 9, 1994. Stanton expresses his displeasure at the pretty much
the entire government Clipper Chip scheme.
- File containing May 3, 1994
testimony of Mr. McConnell, the Director of the National Security Agency
(NSA), before the Senate Judiciary Committee's Technology and the Law
Subcommittee. McConnell supports the government's escrowed encryption
initiative, seeing it as a good balance between the needs of law
enforcement and the privacy of individuals. He also discusses the
NSA's role as 'technical advisors' to the FBI and the National Institute
of Standards and Technology (NIST).
- followup to the above file - Senators
asked questions of NSA, and received the following largely disingenuous
answers, many of them provably false with the most basic of logic.
Closely parallels statements made by NIST at public meetings about
"Clipper 2" in Sept. 1995.
- Minnesota Session Law 1994
Chapter 325 excerpt, banning the use of Clipper technology in the
encryption of medial records. Authored by state Rep. Marc Asch. Passed
into law May 11, 1994.
- File containing plenty of information (SEC files,
annual report, etc.) on Myotronx, one of the companies selected to
manufacture the Clipper chips for the US government's key escrowed
encryption program. File dated April 1993.
- File containing article from RISKS Digest,
entitled "PC Software Foils Wiretaps," dated May 10, 1995 and written by
Simson Garfinkel. The article is about Nautilus, a program developed by
three west-coast computer programmers, a program which can secure any PC
from wiretaps. The program is a rebuff at the US government's attempt to
develop the Clipper scheme.
- File containing February 4, 1994 press
release entitled "NIST Calls for Partners in Developing Key
Escrowing Hardware.' The release, from the National Institute of
Standards and Technology (NIST), announces an opportunity to join a
cooperative research consortium for developing the next generation of
encryption technology for computer hardware that contains integrated
cryptographic key escrowing techniques.
- File containing a release from the National
Institute of Standards and Technology Computer Security Bulletin Board,
dated February 4, 1994, entitled 'Fact Sheet: NIST Cryptography
Activities.' The fact sheet contains information on NIST involvement in
cryptography activities, especially the Escrowed Encryption Standard
and the Digital Signature Standard.
- File containing statement of
Raymond Kammer, Acting Director, National Institute of Standards and
Technology, before the House Subcommittee on Telecommunications and
Finance (Committee on Energy and Commerce), on April 29, 1993. Kammer
discusses NIST's activities in telecommunications security, the planned
recertification of the Data Encryption Standard, the proposed Digital
Signature Standard, and the Clipper Chip.
- File containing February 4, 1994 press release
entitled "NIST Announces Voluntary Escrowed Encryption Standard to
Promote Secure Telecommunications." The release announces NIST's
support of 'the voluntary standard that can be used by government
agencies or the private sector to provide strong
encryption protection for sensitive but unclassified voice, fax and data
communications over telephone lines.'
- File containing a Computer Systems Laboratory
Bulletin, dated February 1991, entitled "Computer Security Roles of NIST
and NSA." The bulletin outlines the responsibilities of the National
Security Agency (NSA) and the National Institute of Standards and
Technology (NIST) in computer security and gives points of contact for
agency computer security and information resources management personnel.
- File containing an article from TELECOM Digest entitled
"FOIA Jewel: Original Charter of the National Security Agency," and dated
February 11, 1990. Contains the secret memorandum ("Subject:
Communications Intelligence Activities") dated October 24, 1952, to the
Secretary of State and the Secretary of Defense, from President Truman.
It marked the secret birth of the NSA.
- File containing NSA responses to questions posed
by Joe Abernathy of the Houston Chronicle, dated June 10, 1992.
Abernathy poses questions on the Digital Encryption Standard (DES) and
the Digital Signature Standard (DSS), as well as the purpose of limiting
export of cryptographic technology, and other related questions.
- File containing a summary / excerpt from ECHO's
'Internet Conference' (as seen by Steve Miller, in attendance at the
conference) of April 23, 1994, which explains the National
Security Agency's (NSA) position on the Escrowed Encryption Standard.
NSA refutes any notions of privacy invasion, security, etc. regarding the
encryption standard being proposed by the government.
- File containing notes on a meeting between
representatives of Bell Laboratories and a group from the NSA and FBI to
discuss the key escrow proposal. These notes are dated February 2, 1994,
and cover such things as NSA's motives and goals for the key escrow
proposal, the security of the Clipper chips, the authority to
undertake electronic surveillance, and some technical discussion of the
- File containing Office of Technology Assessment
report, dated September 15, 1994, entitled 'Information Security and
Privacy in Network Environments.' This extremely long report was
prepared in response to a request by the Senate Committee on
Governmental Affairs and the House Subcommittee on Telecommunications and
Finance. The report focuses on policy issues in three areas: 1) national
cryptography policy, including federal information processing standards
and export controls; 2) guidance on safeguarding unclassified
information in federal agencies; and 3) legal issues and information
security, including electronic commerce, privacy, and intellectual
- File containing summary of
- File containing article from Computer
underground Digest (issue # 6.87) by Shayne Weyker, entitled "Clipper:
How Much Privacy Can We Afford? How Much Security Do We Need?"
Weyker discusses the pros and cons of both sides of the Clipper debate.
- File containing an abstract from
the Internet Multicasting Service entitled 'A Proposal to Turn on the
Lights on the Information Highway,' written by Carl Malamud and dated
March 4, 1994. Malamud argues for a fundamental system of public key
cryptography to be incorporated within computer networks, and not
necessarily one sponsored by the government.
- File containing February 4, 1994 Dept. of
Justice press release, 'Attorney General Makes Key Escrow Encryption
Announcements', announcing the two government entities who will hold the
escrowed key components for encryption using the key escrow encryption
method. The two agencies are the National Institute of Standards and
Technology (NIST) -- part of the Dept. of Commerce -- and the Automated
Systems division of the Dept. of the Treasury.
- File containing what appears to be a radio clip
entitled 'Presumed Guilty' by Glen L. Roberts. He basically reduces
the Clipper Chip as an attempt by the government to lull is into a false
sense of security.
- File containing sample opposition letter to the
Clipper Chip addressed to your Senator/Congressman/President.
- File containing an interim report, 'SKIPJACK
Review', on the SKIPJACK algorithm. The report is dated July 28, 1993
and authored by Ernest Brickell (Sandia National Labs), Dorothy Denning
(Georgetown University), Stephen Kent (BBN Communications Corp.), David
Maher (AT&T), and Walter Tuchman (Amperif Corp.). The report evaluates
the strength of the SKIPJACK algorithm. Conclusion? Not significant
risk that SKIPJACK will be broken in the next 30 - 40 years.
- File containing Time/CNN Poll -- "Who Should
Keep the Keys", TIME, March 4, 1994 -- stating 80% polled oppose the
- File containing May 3, 1994
testimony of Stephen Walker, President, Trusted Information Systems,
Inc., for the Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Technology and
the Law, United States Senate. Walker testifies the negative impact
that U.S. export control regulations on cryptography would have on U.S.
economic interests. He also is concerned about invasion of privacy
rights, as well.
- File containing a letter from Grady Ward to
Congressman Dan Hamburg, dated April 28, 1993, opposing 'President
Clinton's Clipper Chip wiretap proposal.' Ward is wary of privacy
invasion, as well as the fact that specifications for the chip remain
- File containing statement of Willis Hare,
Chairman of the Computer System Security and Privacy Advisory Board,
before the Subcommittee on Technology, Environment and Aviation, U.S.
House of Representatives, on May 3, 1994. Statement basically
discusses what the Computer System Security and Privacy Advisory
Board is -- essentially a forum in which public and government views
on cryptographic policy could be heard.
- File containing the response to 114 questions sent
to President Clinton by the Digital Privacy & Security Working Group
on the Clipper Chip. The response was received July 29, 1994, from
John Podesta, Asst. to the President and Staff Secretary. Questions /
answers deal with the key escrow initiative.
- File containing White House fact sheet ('Public
Encryption Management') released in conjunction with the announcement of
the Clipper Chip encryption technology. Short blurb that goes through
the basics. Not dated.
- File containing February 4, 1994, EFF Press
Release regarding the statements made by the Clinton Administration
and various agencies before Congress. EFF expressed its displeasure at
the news that the Administration is not backing down on Clipper, key
escrow and ITAR restrictions.
- File containing February 4, 1994, White House Press
Release -- "Questions and Answers about the Clinton Administration's
Encryption Policy." Q-A concerns the encryption technology review,
which, according to the Administration, confirmed the need for key
escrow. Q-A also discusses the interests of national security and law
enforcement, as well as the issue of export controls on encryption.
- File containing the original Clipper Chip
announcement from the Office of the Press Secretary of the White House,
dated April 16, 1993. The White House promises that the technology will
meet the privacy needs of individuals and business as weel as meeting the
interests of law enforcement and national security. A short Question /
Answer clip follows the announcement.
- File containing February 4, 1994, White House
Press Release announcing the recommendations resulting from the
interagency review of encryption technology commenced in April of 1993.
The Administration proclaimed their approval of the Escrowed Encryption
Standard (EES) and announced the holders of the escrowed keys. The
Administration also announced the creation of a working group to work
with industry and public-interst groups to develop new encryption
technologies and to refine Administration policies regarding encryption.
- File containing the definition of
Tesserea, from Starr's History of the Classical World and the Oxford
- File containing report from Mark Voorhees ('Voorhees
Reports') entitled "Why I Care About Clipper", and dated March 25, 1994.
Voorhees states that, civil liberties aside, the Clipper chip would be
bad for American business. He also raises the issue of NSA involvement
in the initiative, something that should concern business.
- File containing a WIRED Online 'Call to Action' on
Electronic Privacy rallying resistance to the Clinton Administration's
support for the Clipper Chip and the SKIPJACK encryption scheme.
WIRED is especially concerned with the access government would have to
private communications if this initiative were followed.
- File containing Computer Professionals for Social
Responsibility (CPSR) brief report on the FBI's document release
concerning the Digital Telephone Initiative. CPSR claims that the
FBI is wrong in asserting that advances in telecommunications technology
have hampered law enforcement efforts to execute court-authorized
wiretaps. CPSR also states that it plans to continue pursuing Freedom
of Information Act (FOIA) litigation against the FBI.
- File containing February 13, 1995 Center
for Democracy and Technology Policy Post announcing 'X9 Committee
Agrees to Develop 3x DES Encryption Standard.' The Accredited
Standards Committee (X9) is responsible for setting data security
standards for the US banking and financial services industry. The NSA
lobbied against development of 3x DES, as it supports development of the
government-backed Escrowed Encryption Standard (Clipper).
Subdirectories in This Archive
- Up to the Parent Directory
- Old/outdated material, preserved for historical interest.
- EFF board member John Gilmore's attempt
at filing a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)
request with the Clipper key 'escrow agents' for the database of
Clipper key components.
Related On-Site Resources
- Clipper II Archive
- Directory pertaining to the Clipper chip and related US govt.
encryption-related "initiatives" (other keywords include: Escrowed
Encrption Standard, EES, Tessera, Skipjack, and Capstone). Clipper_II/
is a Link to directory of info on later (1995) NIST "Clipper II"
key "escrow" scheme
- - Link to directory of documents on the 1996 IWGCP
draft key "escrow" scheme, referred to commonly as "Clipper III" or
"Clipper 3"), and revised 1996-7 US crypto export policy in which
medium strength crypto can be exported but only if key "escrowed"
withing 2 years (commonly called "Clipper 3.11").
- Directory of info on key "escrow" and "trusted third
party" schemes in Europe, labelled "Euro-Clipper" by many.
- Key Escrow
- Link to directory of files on the US Administration's
1995 (and onward? We hope not...) "Clipper 2": Commercial key escrow.
This issue ties in directly with ITAR crypto export policy (see
Links to Related Off-Site Resources
- reveal that, despite promises of "voluntary" key escrow, FBI
and NSA both believe that Clipper-like systems "will only work" if
made mandatory (docs available via EPIC web site).
Brad Cox's "Big Brother" Document Archive
- Electronic Privacy Info.
Center's Encryption Policy pages
- CDT Crypto Issues
- Encryption Policy Resource
- Internet Privacy