Privacy/Online Commerce - Digital Money & Transactions
- David Chaum's August 1992 article from
Scientific America describing "blind signature'
technology and the possibilities of enhanced
digital privacy and electronic cash.
- a 1994 list of publications by David Chaum, founder
of DigiCash, and pioneer of most of the ideas surrounding digital money.
- DigiCash press release about the testing of it's Ecash
- a 1994 brochure describing DigiCash's electronic
- October 1993 paper attempting to describe
Chaum's digital cash in lay terms, and outlining how Chaum avoids the
notorious "double-spending" problem. Followed by other online articles
- may 1994 description of Magic Money V1.1 with
autoclient and multiserver capability (a recent idea competing with
- "Digital Cash and Monetary Freedom", Jon W.
Matonis, Presented at INET '95, Internet Society Annual Conference,
Honolulu, Hawaii, June 26-30, 1995. This paper describes the
differences between mere encrypted credit card schemes and true
digital cash, which presents a revolutionary opportunity to transform
payments. The nine key elements of an electronic, digital cash are
outlined and a tenth element is proposed which would embody digital
cash with a non-political unit of value.
- a listing of online banks worldwide, books about
online banking and a description of why online banking
increases the privacy of individuals.
- Chaum's 1993 article describes 3 ways to make
online cash exchange work.
- Chaum's 1994 paper explaining the
technique of prepaid smartcards which
contains stored value (in terms of dollars)
which a user might exchange with a vendor
rather than cumbersome cash.
- "An Efficient Off-line Electronic Cash System
Based on the Representation Problem", Stefan Brands, 1991. Technical
paper; abstract (in part): "We present a new off-line electronic cash
system based on a problem, called the representation problem, of which
little use has been made in literature thus far. Our system is the first
to be based entirely on discrete logarithms. Using the represenation
problem as a basic concept, some techniques are introduced that enable us
to construct protocols for withdrawal and payment that do not use the cut
and choose methodology of earlier systems. As a consequence, our cash
system is much more efficient in both computation and communciation
complexity than previously proposed systems...Contrary to previously
proposed systems, [our system's] correctness can be mathematically
proven to a very great extent...Our system offers a number of
extensions that are hard to acheive in previously known systems..."
This is a gzip-compressed PostScript document.
- Marc Rinquette's August 1992 article on implementing
electronic cash using secure newsgroups.
- "Single Term Off-Line Coins", Niels
Ferguson. Technical article; abstract: "We present a new construction for
off-line electronic coins that is both far more efficient and much simpler
that previous systems. Instead of using many terms, each for a single bit
of the challenge, our system uses a single term for a large number of
possible challenges. The withdrawal protocol does not use a
cut-and-choose methodology as with earlier systems, but uses a direct
construction." 1991. This is a gzip-compressed PostScript file.
- 1994 article and commentary discussing electronic
purse specifications and digital cash.
Anonymity/pseudonymity issues Archives
- Good background material.
Encryption topics Archive
- link to directory of info on general (usually technical)
encryption topics. Good background material.
- Digital Signatures Archive
- link to directory of info regarding the related
technology of digital signature and electronic authentication.
Good background material.
Links to Related Off-Site Resources
- David Chaum's
DigiCash support site
- There's also an
Digicash provides it's own "Ecash" applications, but others have
used Chaum & DigiCash's techniques.
- a Chaumian DigiCash system by C2Net [Defunct; link
to http://www.c2.org/nexbucks no longer functions.]
Mondex Digital Transaction System Info Pages
- CyberCash secure
Internet payment system pages.
- a European Comission funded project to look into the
implications of and to develop systems to trade intellectual
properties over networks. This will also encompass payment systems and
methods of identifying the owners of intellectual properties and
media. There are questionairres on the web site which people can fill
in to help us set precedents and build consensus on sensitive issues